1. Byteballは、設計も開発の方向性もトラストレスでは無い。
  2. この傾向は、witnessが分散化しても変わらない。
  3. 現状ではトラストレスを重視する人達がByteballも評価する傾向があるが、筆者はこれが腑に落ちない。

Continue reading “Byteballは「トラストレス」になり得ない”

“ブロックチェーンを用いた知的財産管理” は課題だらけ

  1. 分散台帳技術を使った知的財産管理には、真正性 (authenticity) と追跡可能性 (traceability)という2つの大きな課題が存在する
  2. 頑健かつ改ざん困難な形で管理出来るのはあくまで「台帳内」に「登録後」のデータなので、台帳外に独立して価値が存在する知的財産の管理は難しい。
  3. この問題への対処は、知的財産が持つ価値を台帳内部へ移転させるか (内部化) 別のインセンティブ設計を考えるか (外部化) の2種類だろう。

Continue reading ““ブロックチェーンを用いた知的財産管理” は課題だらけ”


  1. Byteballの合意形成アルゴリズムについて、ホワイトペーパーを読んだ限りでの自分の理解を記録する。
  2. ここで合意すべき内容とは、同じユーザーが生成したノード群の順序である。
  3. 具体的には 合意形成 = (MC(best parent(witness(個人の価値観)))) という構造である。

Continue reading “Byteballの合意形成アルゴリズムについて”

Ito (2017) “A Commons-Based Intellectual Property Management Incentivised by Peer-Review and Reward Tokens”

Abstract: This paper aims to propose an intellectual property management which can sufficiently incentivise to innovation without providing exclusive rights for creators. Specifically, our model applies citation network and rewarding structure employed in cryptocurrencies, and instead of appropriability mechanisms, creators in the model are compensated by the delegation of subsequent review. This system can improve the social welfare on existing systems by free and open access and less management cost as decentralized autonomous organization.

*This paper is now under the review.*

Ito (2017) “A Survey for the Methodology of the Theories on Cumulative Cultural Evolution”

Abstract: Why only human-beings acquired complex cultural traits? In this research, we survey the theories on cumulative cultural evolution that has been dealing with this question. This is important because cultural evolution is so interdisciplinary a research field as not able to sufficiently systematize existing methods even though we focused only on cumulative and theoretical aspects. In order for terse classification, preceding researches were arranged according to two criteria chronological and methodological. As a result, the former depicted, as already pointed out by Horiuchi (2012), that the current theoretical approach is largely based on learning hypothesis and population hypothesis. On the other hand, the latter suggested the circumstances where methods are still miscellaneous and arbitrarily set to obtain predetermined conclusions. Therefore, this survey concludes it is necessary for agents’ learning and inheritance process to have the consistent assumptions supported by empirical studies. While there are potential constraints, working on this issue with reference to other disciplines would strongly contribute to the further development of theoretical research on cumulative cultural evolution.

Full article(Github)

Japan Association for Evolutionary Economics the 21th anniversary meeting at Kyoto University, (non-published).

Ito (2016) “Dynamics of Cumulative Culture with Microfoundation”

Abstract: This paper presents a dynamics of cumulative culture by using the methodology of economic growth theory which similarly deals with the accumulation stemming from human activities. Two main results can be derived from the model we set. First, the steady-state value of cultural stock is not affected by its quality and evaluation. Second, the steady-state is almost stable in all transitional dynamics. These imply that only indirect intervention has the real effect on cultural stock which is especially related to acquisition cost, depreciation and creativity.

Full article, Full article (Github)

Journal of Information Studies, Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, The University of Tokyo, No.91.